Access Management

Access management in Dolt is handled similarly to how it is handled in MySQL. When Dolt is running, it relies upon the grant tables (mysql.user, mysql.db, etc.) to control user access. Access is determined by the privileges that a user has. For more information on the basics of how users and privileges work and how to use them, please read our blog post from when we announced their inclusion into Dolt. This document will assume some familiarity with users and privileges.

Configuring Privileges

Users and grants are on by default. Users and grants are stored in the .doltcfg/privileges.db file by default. You can reference a non-default privileges file if you want to share privileges between databases.

CLI Argument

By default, privileges will be stored in .doltcfg/privileges.db file, but you may pass in the --privilege-file="PATH" argument to specify your own file. "PATH" represents the path to the privileges file, generally named privileges.db.

YAML Configuration Option

By default, privileges will be stored in .doltcfg/privileges.db file, you may add the privilege_file: PATH line to your YAML config. "PATH" represents the path to the privileges file, generally named privileges.db.

User and Password Arguments

Before the introduction of users and privileges, Dolt supported only a single user with an accompanying password. This was done using the --user and --password arguments (see the docs for their defaults, also available using YAML configuration), whereby a server would only allow connections that supplied that singular user and password combination. Although Dolt now supports users in a similar fashion to MySQL, we still retain the user and password arguments. In MySQL, the default super account (generally called the root user) is created during installation and configuration. Rather than creating this super account during init, we instead handle the super account creation when starting a server via the arguments.

This leads to an interaction with the privilege file that should be noted. A privilege file is only created when there is a modification to any of the grant tables. As soon as any statement that modifies the grant tables (CREATE USER, GRANT, REVOKE, etc.) executes, the users and all privileges will save to the privilege file. Superusers, including those created through --user, will not be persisted. This includes the super account as defined by the user and password arguments, therefore it is recommended that the super account is deleted after all users are set up, or it is given a strong password. On subsequent server starts, if the privilege file contains any data, the user and password arguments are fully ignored. This behavior was chosen so that server should always have at least one user that a client may log into, otherwise the server would be completely inaccessible.

Editing Users

Dolt comes with a client built-in, which is the sql command.

Importantly, as described in the previous section, if a non-empty privilege file is provided, then the --user and --password arguments (also available via a YAML configuration file) only function as login credentials. Otherwise, the arguments handle both the creation of a super account and login credentials.

Updates and Persistence

Unlike in MySQL, Dolt immediately processes all updates to the grant tables. Any privilege changes will immediately take effect, any deleted users with current sessions will immediately lose access, etc. Whether these are benefits or drawbacks depend on those running the database. For Dolt, the decision to have all updates take immediate effect allows for emergency updates to not require a server restart in some cases, which we believe offers some security and convenience advantages. The benefit of delayed updates do not seem as likely or often, although we may still change this behavior in the future if it is proven otherwise.

Persistence to the privilege file is immediate only when the grant tables are modified through their typical statements (CREATE USER, GRANT, REVOKE, etc.). Directly modifying the grant tables using INSERT, UPDATE, etc. will cause an immediate update to all current users, however it will not be immediately persisted to the privilege file. The privilege file is only updated when the aforementioned statements are executed. This may change in the future.


For now, only some of the core statements are supported for users and privileges. Of those core statements, some are fully supported, while others only offer partial support.

Fully Supported





The following grant tables are fully implemented:

  • mysql.user

    • Contains the user definition, global static privileges, login details, password limits, account maximums, and attributes

    • Although this table is fully implemented, we do not support all of the features that this table provides, even though they may be set

      • For those features that are not yet implemented, their column values may not survive a server restart

  • mysql.db

    • Contains the database-level privileges

  • mysql.tables_priv

    • Contains the table-level privileges

  • mysql.role_edges

    • Contains the connections between all roles and users

Partially Supported


    • For now, we only support setting the username and host name, global static privileges, locked status, and a basic mysql_native_password for authentication

    • All other fields, such as the DEFAULT ROLE and multiple auth options, are either ignored or will throw an error

    • Even though a comment and attributes may be set (and are persisted), they are ignored, and this includes partial revokes


    • The form GRANT <privileges> ON <privilege_level> TO <users...> does not yet support columns, an object type (tables only), or assuming a different user

    • The form GRANT <roles...> TO <users...> [WITH ADMIN OPTION] is fully supported

    • The form GRANT PROXY ... is not yet supported


    • The form REVOKE <privileges...> ON <privilege_level> FROM <users...> does not yet support columns or an object type (tables only)

    • The form REVOKE <roles...> FROM <users...> is fully supported

    • The form REVOKE PROXY ... is not yet supported

    • The form REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES ... is not yet supported, which differs from REVOKE ALL ON ... in functionality


    • Displays global static grants and granted roles

    • Does not yet display a user's database or table-level privileges

    • The optional [USING <roles...>] portion is not yet supported

Not Yet Supported






The following grant tables (and their associated functionality) are not yet supported:

  • mysql.global_grants

    • Contains all global dynamic grants

  • mysql.columns_priv

    • Contains column privileges

  • mysql.procs_priv

    • Contains stored procedures

  • mysql.proxies_priv

    • Contains proxy accounts

  • mysql.default_roles

    • Stores each user's default roles

  • mysql.password_history

    • Contains password changes

The following system variables are not yet supported:

  • mandatory_roles

    • All roles (and users) named here are granted to all users automatically, and cannot be revoked or dropped

  • activate_all_roles_on_login

    • Sets all roles to active upon logging into a user

    • As SET ROLE is also not yet implemented, any granted roles are automatically active when granted and logging in

      • This will be changed as soon as SET ROLE is implemented

Future Plans

We plan to incorporate all currently missing statements and functionality that MySQL contains regarding users and privileges. In addition, we also plan to allow for all of our versioning features to have their access privilege-checked. This includes the Dolt SQL functions (DOLT_COMMIT(), DOLT_CHECKOUT(), etc.) as well as only allowing specific users to manage specific branches, just to name a few of the planned features. This page will be updated as features are added!

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